ERCP stands for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. ERCP is a technique that uses and x-ray to view a patient’s bile and pancreatic ducts. Bile and pancreatic ducts filter waste from the gallbladder, liver, and pancreas. When one of the ducts is blocked (commonly due to gallstones) and ERCP is necessary to examine the issues and repair or improve the condition.